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Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901.

Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales.

He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.

Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.

However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought.

Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement.

The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world.

Some mounted violent resistance when the British established farms along the Hawkesbury River west of Sydney.Between 17 about 4,300 convicts were landed at Sydney.The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity.Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia.

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